Frederic Edwin Church

American Hudson River School Painter

1826 - 1900

Photograph of Frederic Edwin Church

American artists of the mid-nineteenth century usually went to Europe or the western frontier in order to expand their repertoire. Frederic Church went first to the tropics and volcanoes of South America. His reasons make a fascinating chapter in the history of American art and thought.

Church was the best known pupil of Thomas Cole, who recognized the singularity of American wilderness landscape and was the first to invest it with heroic grandeur. Church, like other painters of his generation, John Kensett, Sanford R. Gifford, and Jasper Cropsey, sketched and painted the Catskills and mountains of New England. In his early pictures he gave to water a reflective, burnished surface, to sunset clouds dramatic color and substance, and painted distant detail so clearly that his picture space seems filled with transparent radiance. By the early 1850's, Church was not only painting views of specific American places with topographical exactitude, he was also combining separate elements of meticulously detailed scenery into landscapes of heroic breadth and depth.

Church was inspired by the fascinating variety and complexity of nature as extolled by John Ruskin, the English writer, critic, and champion of J. M. W. Turner. Church also believed, like his contemporaries, that close study of nature was essential to grasp unique underlying truths which had moral implications. Thus, he was very impressed by the writings of the German naturalist, Alexander von Humboldt, whose influential Cosmos: Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe first appeared in English in 1849. Von Humboldt's goal was to synthesize existing scientific knowledge into a theoretical system proving that nature was one great whole animated by internal forces which tended towards harmonious unity. He sought to prove that behind the complexity of the natural world was a divine order and he recognized the importance of landscape art in revealing this order. Von Humboldt specifically encouraged landscape painters to travel to those parts of the world having the greatest botanical and geological variety. Von Humboldt, who had set off for the tropics of South America in 1799, so inspired Church that in 1853 he retraced Humboldt's 1802 route from Barranquilla, in what is now Colombia, to Guayaquil, Ecuador, through the northern Andes where he made sketches of rivers, waterfalls, and volcanoes. One result was The Andes of Ecuador 1855, Church's largest painting to date. Seen from a lofty viewpoint, amid rich, tropical vegetation, a river tumbles into a lake which empties into a deep, misty gorge. The gorge leads into the distance and range after range of mountains suffused with a sunlit haze. The depth and breadth are so vast that it may be more accurately called, rather than landscape, earthscape.

The Andes of Ecuador: 1855

This is Church's largest canvas to date. The vast scale of South American scenery evidently had a direct influence on his perception of the function of size in painting. In its composition this subject reflects that preoccupation. The rocks and mountains are pushed to the edges of the canvas by the light-laden atmosphere intervening between the eye and every object. One critic wrote of the picture in explicitly religious terms: 'Seldom has a more grand effect of light been depicted... it literally floods the canvas with celestial fire, and beams with glory like a sublime psalm of light.'

With his reputation firmly established by such tropical scenes, Church returned to the tropics in 1857 accompanied by Charles Remy Mignot (1831-1870), a fellow landscape painter from the United States. He landed this time on the coast of Ecuador at Guayaquil and pushed east into the interior to sketch the volcanoes Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, and Sangay.

Chimborazo: 1864

In painting Chimborazo, Church drew inspiration from the German naturalist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859). Humboldt explored South America from 1799 to 1804 and described his journey from a scientific point of view in extensive texts. His observations led him to hypothesize that nature existed in a state of interdependent harmony. The theory that the cosmos exhibited a grand and understandable design appealed to the spiritual nature of Church, who often imbued his landscapes with references to the divine. Humboldt likened the grandeur of 'Mount Chimborazo' to Michelangelo's dome of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, an analogy with a religious connotation Church would have appreciated.

Mount Chimborazo, Ecuador: 1857

View of Cotpaxi: 1857

Church painted this View of Cotopaxi, a volcanic mountain in Ecuador on the northwestern coast of South America, four years after viewing it on a trip to paint exotic lands virtually unknown to North Americans. His realistic portrayal shows lush flora, a waterfall, and hills, which lead to the distant peak. An elevated vantage point permits an awesome view filled with contrasts: green foliage and rugged, barren slopes; water that is calm (lake), explosive (waterfalls), and frozen (peak); and great warmth and extreme cold.

In this panoramic view, Church combined scientific exploration and artistic license (altering the shape of the volcano and the terrain surrounding it) to create a symbolic and evocative portrayal of the vast New World. The artist produced at least 10 finished paintings of the dramatic volcanic mountain. He was inspired by the writings of German natural historian Alexander von Humboldt, who interpreted the wonders of the natural world as evidence of God's role as Creator.

Church's paintings, such as Cotopaxi, have been linked as well to the idea of "Manifest Destiny," a term used during this period by those Americans who not only wished to extend the boundaries of the United States to include Western territories but also favored intervention in the affairs of South America.

Cotopaxi: 1855

Cotapaxi was painted after Church's second visit to Ecuador in 1857 and embodies all that is essential about his work. His readings of John Ruskin and Alexander von Humboldt caused him to travel widely and the Andes, in particular, where he followed Humboldt's footsteps, proved particularly fruitful. Drawing on copious sketches and notes made while traveling, Church forged a large picture style that distilled epic narrative to its essence. He presented an astonishing array of natural effects, rendered with precision and flair on a scale hitherto confined to European History painting best known from the French salons of the 18th and 19th-centuries. In Cotapaxi, the viewer is suspended over an abyss, confronted by smoke and mists, a burning sun and dramatic effects of light. Church often selected and assembled spectacular effects that verged on the improbable, but his deeply held conviction that God was made manifest in Nature precluded the possibility of exaggeration or distortion.

By January, 1858, he had begun his most ambitious, complex, and largest tropical scene, Heart of the Andes, 1858. Technically brilliant in its detailed rendering of an immensely wide and deep vista, the painting was seen on payment of twenty-five cents by more than twelve thousand people during three weeks in Church's New York studio. The artist brought together into one scene a tropical river flanked by lush dense vegetation, upland plains, and towering mountains, snowcapped at their highest elevation-geographically and climatically more than one region could possibly contain-dazzling in grandeur and mesmerizing in detail.

Heart of the Andes: 1859

This picture was inspired by Church's second trip to South America in the spring of 1857. Church sketched prolifically throughout his nine weeks of travel in Ecuador, and many extant drawings and oil sketches contain elements found in this work. The picture was publicly unveiled in New York at Lyrique Hall, Broadway, on April 27, 1859. Subsequently moved to the gallery of the Tenth Street Studio Building, it was presented in a dark, curtained frame designed to look like a window and illuminated by carefully orchestrated lighting in a darkened chamber. The exhibition caused a sensation, and twelve to thirteen thousand people paid twenty-five cents apiece to see it. The picture was later shown in London and eight other American cities, where it was greatly admired as well.

In 1859, however, Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species turned on its head Humboldt's concept that nature evolved toward harmony as the result of a guiding divine force. According to Darwin the state of nature was competition and struggle, not harmony. Thus was shattered a basic American concept of nature and landscape painting, namely, that man could turn to nature for moral guidance. By the late 1870's, the very ability to detail miles of scenery had become less admired than the creation of poetic visions.

In the 1860's and early 1870's, Church turned away from the crystal clear, meticulously detailed views of vast expanses of the tropics in favor of sunlit landscapes of America, icebergs of the far North, and the coast of Maine. In 1867 he made his first trip to Europe and visited the Middle East, which provided exotic subjects for paintings of the Old World. When he did paint scenes of the tropics in the 1870's, they were quite different in both style and mood, as we see in the Butler Institutes In the Andes of 1878.

In the Andes: 1878

The left foreground suggests the generally rich abundance of tropical flora, while the two palm trees convey individual and specific natural histories. This we would expect from Church, but the shadowed foothills and distant violet-gray mountains separated by a layer of yellow cloud and a hazy atmosphere which blurs distant detail reveals a new and different vision. The scope of this view is expansive, but great distance is implied rather than described, and we must draw on our imagination to complete the landscape. In the absence of a single mountain protagonist the wake of a riverboat catches our attention. We feel linked to this human element, which is not lost in a superabundance of botanical and geological detail as in earlier pictures. Light has now become a major concern, and we look into a sun whose dazzle unifies the water of the river, the distant mountains, and the sky into a shimmering whole. The painting has a quiet rather than an epic mood. The setting is exotic, but the mood is pensive. Darwin had injected randomness into nature, hitherto seen as tending toward unity. Church, at the end of his active painting career, like many American painters in the last decades of the nineteenth century, sought through light a poetic unity in place of a scientific one based on a painstaking detailing of the physical world.


Frederic Edwin Church was an American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut. He was a central figure in the Hudson River School of American landscape painters. While committed to the natural sciences, he was "always concerned with including a spiritual dimension in his works".

The family wealth came from Church's father, Joseph Church, a silversmith and watchmaker in Hartford, Connecticut. (Joseph subsequently also became an official and a director of The Aetna Life Insurance Company) Joseph, in turn, was the son of Samuel Church, who founded the first paper mill in Lee, Massachusetts in the Berkshires, and this allowed him (Frederic) to pursue his interest in art from a very early age. At eighteen years of age, Church became the pupil of Thomas Cole in Catskill, New York after Daniel Wadsworth, a family neighbor and founder of the Wadsworth Atheneum, introduced the two. In May 1848, Church was elected as the youngest Associate of the National Academy of Design and was promoted to Academician the following year. Soon after, he sold his first major work to Hartford's Wadsworth Atheneum.

Church settled in New York where he taught his first pupil, William James Stillman. From the spring to autumn each year Church would travel, often by foot, sketching. He returned each winter to paint and to sell his work.

Between 1853 and 1857, Church traveled in South America, financed by businessman Cyrus West Field, who wished to use Church's paintings to lure investors to his South American ventures. Church was inspired by the Prussian explorer Alexander von Humboldt's Cosmos and his exploration of the continent; Humboldt had challenged artists to portray the "physiognomy" of the Andes.

Two years after returning to America, Church painted The Heart of the Andes (1859), now in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, at the Tenth Street Studio in New York City. It is more than five feet high and nearly ten feet in length. Church unveiled the painting to an astonished public in New York City in 1859. The painting's frame had drawn curtains fitted to it, creating the illusion of a view out a window. The audience sat on benches to view the piece and Church strategically darkened the room, but spotlighted the landscape painting. Church also brought plants from a past trip to South America to heighten the viewers' experience. The public were charged admission and provided with opera glasses to examine the painting's details. The work was an instant success. Church eventually sold it for $10,000, at that time the highest price ever paid for a work by a living American artist.

Heart of the Andes: 1859

Church showed his paintings at the annual exhibitions of the National Academy of Design, the American Art Union, and at the Boston Art Club, alongside Thomas Cole, Asher Brown Durand, John F. Kensett, and Jasper F. Cropsey. Critics and collectors appreciated the new art of landscape on display, and its progenitors came to be called the Hudson River School.

In 1860 Church bought a farm in Hudson, New York and married Isabel Carnes. Both Church's first son and daughter died in March, 1865 of diphtheria, but he and his wife started a new family with the birth of Frederic Joseph in 1866. When he and his wife had a family of four children, they began to travel together. In 1867 they visited Europe and the Middle East, allowing Church to return to painting larger works.

Before leaving on that trip, Church purchased the eighteen acres on the hilltop above his Hudson farm-land he had long wanted because of its magnificent views of the Hudson River and the Catskills. In 1870 he began the construction of a Persian-inspired mansion on the hilltop and the family moved into the home in the summer of 1872. Richard Morris Hunt was the architect for Cosy Cottage at Olana, and was consulted early on in the plans for the mansion, but after the Church's trip to Europe and what is now Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Syria, Jordan and Egypt, the English architect Calvert Vaux was hired to complete the project. Church was deeply involved in the process, even completing his own architectural sketches for its design. This highly personal and eclectic castle incorporated many of the design ideas that he had acquired during his travels.

Olana State Historic Site is now owned and operated by the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, Taconic Region and receives extensive support from The Olana Partnership, a private, non-profit organization.

The main house is open to the public for guided tours. A visitor center offers a film and panel exhibit as well as a Museum Shop, operated by The Olana Partnership, offering books and many items inspired by the exotic locales of Church's travels and paintings. The grounds are open year-round, 8am-sunset, for hiking, picnicking, snowshoeing or just enjoying the view.

From: Wikipedia

A Coast Line in Jamaica, West Indies: 1865

A Country Home: 1854

'A Country Home' was one of the most acclaimed paintings of Frederic Church's early career. Why? What inspired Church to paint 'A Country Home'? What might the subject have meant to the artist, a young painter from Hartford, Connecticut, newly established on the art scene in New York in the early 1850's when he conceived of this picture? And what made this painting so appealing to the public at that time? To learn more about the artist's inspiration and the appreciation that viewers have had for this painting in the nineteenth century and today, follow the paths of inquiry that we offer here.

Above the Clouds at Sunrise: 1849

Al Ayn
(aka The Fountain): 1882

Aurora Borealis: 1865

The ship and sled team in this image belonged to Frederic Church's friend, polar explorer Dr. Isaac Hayes. In 1859 Church accompanied Hayes on an expedition to the Arctic, where he made the sketches for this painting. They returned from their voyage to find the country in the thick of the Civil War, and Hayes vowed in a rousing speech, "God willing, I trust yet to carry the flag of the great Republic, with not a single star erased from its glorious Union, to the extreme northern limits of the earth." Viewers understood Church's paintings of the northern lights as a symbol of the Union cause, a divine display for the northern states alone to see.

Aurora Borealis
(Mount Desert Island from Bar Harbor, Maine): 1860

Autumn: 1875

Autumn in North America: ca 1856

Autumn on the Hudson: 1853

Autumn Shower: 1859

Beacon off Mount Desert Island: 1851

Broken Columns View from the Parthenon Athens: 1869

Camp Fire in the Maine Wilderness: 1851-59

Coast - Scene: 1852

Cross in the Wilderness: 1857

El Khasne Petra

El Rio de Luz
(aka The River of Light): 1877

Like his teacher, Thomas Cole, Church conveyed a sense of awesome sublimity in his landscapes by celebrating the seemingly infinite wonders of the natural world. The artist devoted a great deal of time to scientific study, believing that knowledge of optics, meteorology, botany, and ecology would greatly enhance his work. After reading the journalistic accounts of the German naturalist, Alexander von Humboldt, Church explored wilderness regions from the arctic to the equator.

El Rio de Luz (The River of Light) is a fanciful pastiche based on numerous sketches and notations that Church had made during an 1857 trip to South America. Despite the time-lapse of twenty years, the tightly focused realism, the overall tonal harmony and restrained coloration, and the compositional unity all lend a remarkable cohesiveness to the work. Church rendered the verdant foliage with exquisite attention to detail, and his virtuoso treatment of tropical sunlight diffused by morning mist makes the atmosphere seem tangible. Red-breasted hummingbirds, a flock of waterfowl, and a distant canoeist occupy the scene, but they do not disturb the overall mood of tranquility. Confronted with the glowing light and heavy vapors of this raw landscape, the viewer is invited to liken daybreak in the tropical rainforest to the dawn of creation itself.

Figures in a New England Landscape: 1852

Figures in an Ecuadorian Landscape: 1872

Fog off Mount Desert: 1850

Volcano: 1864

Grand Manan Island, Bay of Fundy: 1852

Hinter Schonau and Reiteralp Mountains, Bavaria: 1868

Home by the Lake: 1852

Hooker and Company Journeying through the Wilderness from Plymouth to Hartford in 1636: 1846

Icebergs and Wreck in Sunset: ca 1860

Ira Mountain, Vermont: 1849-50

Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives: 1870

The only formal pupil of Thomas Cole, Frederic Church raised landscape painting to new heights of grandeur and melodrama throughout the third quarter of the 19th century. Church's monumental and dramatic 'Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives' shows the Holy City on the distant horizon. It is situated in the midst of a panoramic landscape and beneath an expansive sky filled with heavy clouds that seem to pull back like stage curtains at the beginning of a performance. Anonymous travelers look on in the foreground and serve as surrogates for actual viewers of the painting. Near the center of the composition sits one of the city's most important structures, the Dome of the Rock. Many other identifiable sites can be seen both within and outside Jerusalem's ancient walls.

Church maintained that Jerusalem was the best picture he ever painted. When the painting was given a solo showing at Goupil's Gallery in New York in 1871, spectators flocked to see it, often forming six rows of people at a time and using opera glasses to see the astonishing details more clearly. Church published a pictorial key so that the painting's admirers could locate sacred sites as well as appreciate Jerusalem's accuracy.

July Sunset Berkshire County, Massachusetts: 1847

La Magdalena_aka
(Scene on the Magdalena): 1854

Lake Scene in Mount Desert: 1851

Landscape in Greece: 1873

Landscape in the Adirondacks: 1847

Landscape with Waterfall: 1858

Moonrise: 1889

Morning Looking East over the Husdon Valley from Catskill Mountains: 1848

This painting shows a view from an elevated rocky spot somewhere in the Catskills, probably near the Catskill Mountain House, where Church had sketched with his teacher Thomas Cole as early as 1844. Confidently painted, with carefully described details of rocks and vegetation and freely handled clouds, Morning was a remarkable achievement for so young a painter.

In 1844, Church was the first formal pupil accepted by Thomas Cole, America's leading landscape painter. From Cole, Church learned both a reverence for nature as a subject and a commitment to making his art express noble and lofty ideas. Church made his professional debut at the National Academy of Design in 1845. By 1848, when Morning and three other of his works were exhibited at the American Art-Union, he had already gained a significant reputation.

Moses Viewing the Promised Land: 1846

Mount Ktaadn
(aka Mount Katahdin): 1853

Mount Ktaadn: ca 1858-60

Mountains of Ecuador
(aka A Tropical Morning): 1855

New England Landscape: 1847

New England Landscape: 1849

New England Landscape
(aka Evening after a Storm): 1849

New England Landscape with Ruined Chimney: 1846

Niagara Falls: 1857

Among all the scenic wonders of the New World, one was foremost in the minds of nineteenth-century Americans: Niagara Falls. First visited by European explorers in the late seventeenth century, the cataracts had come to symbolize for many Americans the power and vitality of their new nation. Citizens of the New World were eager to prove their equality to the Old World in all things, and Niagara was judged to be as good as or even better than anything Europe could offer in the way of spectacular scenery.

Niagara Falls from the American Side

Church's large canvas captures magnificently the drama of Niagara Falls, one of his country's most famous landmarks. This painting, based on a drawing Church made at Niagara in July 1856 and on a sepia photograph touched with color, was commissioned by the New York art dealer Michael Knoedler in 1866. It may originally have been destined for the Universal Exhibition in Paris, as Church was selected to represent America there. It was bought in 1887 by John S. Kennedy who presented it to his native Scotland. It is the only major example of Church's work in a European public collection.

North Lake: 1847

North Peristyle Parthenon Athens: 1869

On Otter Creek: ca 1849-50

Our Banner in the Sky: 1861

Created within a month of Confederate forces firing on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, where Union forces were based-a pivotal movement at the launch of the Civil War-the image is dramatic, with bars of white clouds in a sunset streaked sky above a band of water and a desolate, uninhabited landscape. Church manipulated celestial elements to create a fragmentary but readily recognizable American flag like the one that survived the attack at Fort Sumter. The horizontal format reinforces the length and flow of the flag. The flag is supported by a leafless and nearly branchless tree, which is balanced by the mass of trees in the distance on the right. An eagle soars just to the left of the tree. The prominent star in the blue field represents the North Star that slaves used for guidance while escaping to the North.

The image was inspired by a sunrise Church saw during the first weeks of the Civil War. It is significant that Church does not depict a physical flag but one that appears as a wondrous apparition in the sky. Church's manipulation of the sky suggests that the Union has God and nature on its side and that the Union is in harmony with the natural order of things. The symbolism of the image is potent and patriotic. Church's flag appears torn but vibrant, suggesting the enduring strength of the Union. He was a strong believer in the Union cause and was undoubtedly pleased when the image was used as the basis for a lithograph made for wide distribution.

Parthenon Athens from the Northwest
(Illuminated Night View): 1869

Rainy Season in the Tropics: 1866

'Rainy Season in the Tropics' depicts two separate places. The Ecuadorian Andes fill most of the canvas; at right the tropical forest represents a scene based on a sketch Church made during a trip to Jamaica in 1865. There has been some debate about the inspiration for 'Rainy Season in the Tropics'. Some scholars link this painting to the end of the Civil War; they believe that the rainbow connects the two landscapes, thereby symbolizing hope for the renewal and reunification of a divided America. Other scholars argue that the work is a response to the artist's sorrow at the death of two of his children in 1865. Both of these interpretations may be partly true, but we know from Church's sketches that he planned a large picture of a South American landscape with a double rainbow in 1863 -- a date well before he knew the outcome of the war or that his children would die. The meaning of Rainy Season in the Tropics is probably more general: it may simply represent the hope of regeneration following a storm and the divine promise symbolized by the rainbow. It is interesting to note how the hindsight that historians possess can be reflected in their interpretations of art.

Church's interest in South American scenery was inspired by the writings of Alexander von Humboldt, a German naturalist. During his travels to South America, Humboldt was struck by the tremendous range of climates in Ecuador: icy mountaintops, grassy plains, and steamy jungles. Humboldt saw this diversity as evidence of the divine presence in the creation of the world. South America was a kind of Garden of Eden to which all other climates of the world -- and thus life itself -- could be linked.

Rough Surf - Mount Desert Island: 1850

Salzburg Castle: ca 1868-69

Scene among the Andes: 1854

Scene on the Catskill Creek, New York: 1847

Scene on the Magdalena: 1854

South American Landscape: 1856

Storm in the Mountains: 1847

The blasted tree was a romantic motif in both European and American painting that represented nature's overwhelming power. The painting suggests that all life, like the tree, is fragile, easily destroyed by natural forces. In this early work, Church paid tribute to his teacher Thomas Cole, who painted very similar blasted tree trunks.

Sunrise in Syria: 1874

Sunset: 1856

Tamaca Palms: 1854

Tequendama Falls near Bogota, New Granada: 1854

The Aegean Sea

The Andes of Ecuador: 1876

The Arabian Desert: 1870

The Cordilleras Sunrise: 1854

The Evening Star: 1859

The Iceberg: 1891

The Iceberg, one of Frederic Church's rare late works, is based on sketches he made off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador more than 30 years earlier. At that time, Church's companion described icebergs as "crystalline vessels...freighted with God's power and glory," comparable to Greek temples or Gothic cathedrals. In this work, Church departed from his studies by changing the time of day from noon to dusk and placing a single figure on the bow of the ship. Accordingly, the painting may be a personal allegory. The ship and its tiny figure may refer to Church himself, approaching the end of his life and his confrontation with the eternal.

The Icebergs: 1861

The Icebergs, Church's grandest and most original work was developed from studies made off the coast of Newfoundland (Canada) in 1859. Critics were extravagant in their praise for this painting when it was first exhibited in New York in 1861; one described it as 'the most splendid work of art that has yet been produced in this country'.

Church was rigorous in his attempts to achieve truth to nature. The foreground is wet and glistening because it has risen from under the water; the changing level of the sea has left horizontal stains on the main iceberg. The brilliant blue veins in the iceberg are caused by water frozen in the cracks of a glacier.

The Magdalena River Equador

The Natural Bridge. Virginia: 1852

The Old Boat
(aka The Abandoned Skiff): 1850

The Parthenon

The Ruins at Sunion, Greece: ca 1869

The Wreck: 1852

To the Memory of Cole: 1848

Tropical Landscape: ca 1873

Twilight among the Mountains: 1845

Twilight in the Wilderness: 1860

Although this is a convincing landscape, it does not depict a specific place. Church created it by combining several different sketches made in Maine and New York. The dramatic light electrifying the entire composition is based on sunsets he witnessed from the window of his New York City studio.

Perhaps the artist intended twilight to suggest the end of a cosmic cycle---a meaning that coincides with the feeling that the Civil War (imminent in 1860 when this picture was made) would change American civilization forever. The panoramic splendor created by brilliant clouds floating above a tranquil landscape also suggests the divine authority of "manifest destiny," the idea that Americans of European stock had a right to the continent. Seen by large numbers of Americans in a touring exhibition organized by Church himself, this picture was marketed as essentially "American"---a comforting, patriotic image of the American wilderness.

Twilight Mount Desert Island, Maine: 1865

Twilight-Short Arbiter
Twixt Day and Night: 1850

View from Olana in the Snow: 1870-73

View in Pittsford, Vt: 1848

View near Stockbridge, Mass: 1847

View of Mount Katahdin: 1878

View of Newport Mountain, Mount Desert: 1851

West Rock, New Haven: 1849

Winter Scene - Olana: 1870

Source: Art Renewal Center

Source: Frederic Edwin Church Online

This page is the work of Senex Magister

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